Printing came to Europe as the middle class emerged which expanded universities and increased the demand for books. Early European block printings is used to communicate the function of devotional prints of saints with simplified illustration style. Movable types was brought to Europe by Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg around 1450. Around the same time, an unidentified artist called the Master of Playing Card created the earliest known copperplate engravings.As decades passed about after 1460, typographic printers increased their use of woodblock illustrations which also increases the demand for blocks and the statue of graphic illustrators. German printers and graphic artists established a national tradition of illustrated book and spread the new medium of communication throughout Europe and even to the New World.During the Renaissance, type design, page layout, ornaments, illustration, and the total design of the book were rethought by Italian printers and scholars with is prototype roman alphabet designs of Sweynheym and Pannartz and the coarse decorative borders of early French books. The new approach to book design started in Venice and continued during the last three decades of the fifteenth century. In 1640, a royal printing office was established to restore quality and new typefaces were created such as Romain du Roi which was the dominant typographic influence.